As everything mentioned in earlier chapters happens repeatedly, so does the creation of space (and time) as mentioned in the previous chapter.
Why does gravity appear so weak compared to the other forces?
What makes gravity appear to be so much weaker than the other forces is that the interaction of energy with itself before there was space and time has been going on and is still going on. The more this happens, the more space is created and this causes gravity to be spread out by the expansion of space itself (more on gravity in another chapter).
That is the underlying mechanism that causes gravity to appear so weak and where the underlying mechanism that led to the expansion of space comes from.
Why is the expansion of space accelerating?
As more and more and more space is created there is more and more room for much more interactions of energy with itself. Below Planck scale, this causes a rapid expansion of space, but only where there is nothing else in that space above Planck scale to interact with. Because this happens at a scale where no electromagnetic radiation is emitted, this process is undetectable to us with our current detectors (2020). This is part of why we only see space more rapidly expanding at large distances, but can’t detect yet what’s causing it.
That is where the underlying mechanism that led to the acceleration of the expansion of space comes from and what most of dark energy actually is.
Why is there so much space (and time)?
Because (in the beginning) there is nothing massive to interact with that would slow this process down, these interactions grow exponentially. And because there is exponentially more space being created during this, space itself grows even more exponentially along with it wherever there’s nearly nothing with a mass.
And this also rapidly repeats while the fundamental form of energy still constantly keeps interacting ubiquitously. As the first level of confined energy grows exponentially, the regions in between still have fundamental energy interactions that cause more space (and time) to emerge, in turn causing more fundamental energy interactions causing much more space.
That is where the underlying mechanism that led to cosmic inflation comes from.
Un-puzzling the uniformity of the CMB
So now and then, there are some interactions of energy happening close to each other that cause virtual particles to appear in the quantum fluctuations as mentioned in an earlier chapter. Because these are nearly massless and very short lived, space still continues to rapidly expand, but not as rapidly in these regions where there is some mass now. As the masses grow, they will eventually reach a point where they extend beyond Planck scale, but until that point is reached electromagnetic radiation is still not able to propagate. At the same time the regions without these masses also keep on rapidly expanding.
All of this motion is causing yet another emergent form of energy we call heat, but at this level it remains mostly at its hottest form and opaque while, simultaneously, the earlier mentioned cosmic inflation is taking place.
That is the underlying mechanism that led to the cosmic microwave background appearing so uniform.
Un-puzzling the appearance of the cosmic web
What mass actually is will be weight in upon in another chapter. But these parts with mass will be the seeds where more and more mass will be grown until you get more and more matter.
And because the parts without mass still keep on rapidly expanding, there are vast spaces where there appears to be almost nothing with some regions where there is matter.
That is the underlying mechanism that led to the cosmic web looking the way it does.
It’s even weirder than we thought
Keep everything in mind that has been brought up in the previous chapters.
But we’ll take a step back for a moment.
When there’s only energy, there’s no space and time. Every interaction of energy with itself causes mass, space and time. That is what causes an entangled state of everything either massless or with mass. The way these interactions cause emergent interactions of energy which cause even more interactions, cause many kinds of entangled regions that are interacting with each other.
This is the underlying mechanism that led to every ’field theory’ in existence.
Uncertainty emerges from the large numbers of energy’s self interactions below Planck scale
As the chains of energy interacting with itself spreads out like three dimensional ripples in a four dimensional pond (if we consider time as being the fourth dimension), there are multiple cross-sections of interaction that are moving along with it.
Every interaction causes pockets of energy and emergent properties. The pockets are confined energy and there are many levels of it along with emergence in between. The massive amounts of times this all happens below Planck scale leads to most of the quantum world looking massively random. Our understanding of this will keep on being very cloudy until we better understand the mechanisms happening from inside and near the smallest (also called virtual and more recently Planck relics) black holes up to the largest ones.
This is the underlying mechanism that led to ’the uncertainty principle’ and the so called ’Copenhagen interpretation of quantum mechanics’.
Why turbulence can’t be solved (yet)?
As some of the cloudiness of our understanding below Planck scale extends into our understanding at the macro scale, turbulence will remain unsolvable. The problem with turbulence is that it extends the uncertainty emerging from large numbers of energy’s self interaction below Planck scale into the macro scale. In order to get to the most accurate description of turbulence we need to find out what happens below Planck scale first. Until then, the randomness emerging from interactions below Planck scale will keep us from truly solving turbulence.
Which leads us to other hard to explain stuff to be explained next
A very closely related phenomenon is superposition. But superposition also isn’t actually about physical objects. We can only observe superposition when we limit the amount of possible interactions in the entangled parts massively. When this isolation is done properly, distance doesn’t matter. But any change in this isolated state will make it appear like the entanglement between the parts ceases to exist. In reality it actually became even more entangled causing us to lose the ability to have an overview of what is entangled. (In a way, we became part of the superposition and entanglement again, and that is why we can’t see the previously isolated parts as isolated anymore.)
In reality the underlying interaction of energy with itself as mentioned in the previous chapters causes the behaviour of physical objects to appear spooky (regarding entanglement and superposition).
That is the underlying mechanism of a quantum-superposition, and why superposition and entanglement are so unstable at macro scales.
So any additional asymmetric ripples of interactions will cause a superposition to end, while at the same time everything in the universe is fundamentally still entangled. It just all appears to behave differently because it is currently not yet possible to see the bigger picture. Under the hood, it all is the interaction of the same energy with itself.
That is what quantum-entanglement is.
But quantum-entanglement and quantum-superposition aren’t spooky
Although looking at superposition and measuring entangled systems seems like there is some kind of action at a distance going on, the entangled parts are basically part of one (from our point of view very large) particle. This might sound a bit insane, but under the hood it is the interaction caused by the same energy interacting with itself. There are many levels of entanglement caused by this same interaction of energy. As mentioned in the previous chapters, energy is ubiquitous and continuously interacting with itself.
That is how entanglement makes it appear like faster than light (FTL) transfer of information is possible.
Why can’t anything with mass (includes information) go FTL?
While there is an entangled particle which fills the universe at the lowest level of confinement, the propagation of effects will have to go through all later levels of confinement with the mentioned emergence also happening along the way. The levels of confinement (and emergence) to propagate through at the macro scale are so much that nothing with mass can ever exceed the maximum speed limit. If any mass would be accelerated to that speed, it will loose any confinement and decay right back into energy. (more on that in the next chapter)
If part four startles you, wait until part five is ready. It will be revealing interesting stuff.
In the meantime, keep watching this space, for (this) space is dynamic.